Curriculum Vitae — David Leal

David Leal


The first part of David Leal's career was spent in the mathematical analysis of systems — control systems and structural systems. In this part of his career he developed a major framework and finite element analysis system, and used this system and other commercial systems to conduct safety critical analyses for the civil, offshore and nuclear industries.

The second part of David Leal's career has been concerned with the management of engineering data. He has been concerned with the development of ontologies and data models for engineering for use in both commercial applications and standards. These ontologies and data models have been in the areas of:

David Leal was an early promoter of the use of OWL for engineering data. His recent work has involved the creation ontologies and data models in OWL, EXPRESS and UML. Because of his long term work in standardization, he is able to write clear natural language text definitions.



BA Mathematics, University of Cambridge


MSc Systems Engineering, The City University, London


The City University — researcher

Conducted research into the identification of parameters in system models on the basis of uncertain observations, especially for the Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor, under contract to the UK Atomic Energy Authority.


CCS (Specialist software house owned by a consortium of UK consulting engineers)

Developed software for static and dynamic structural analysis.


Babcock Power

Carried out research into the analysis of the dynamic response of pipework when subjected to earthquake loads.


SIA (Computer bureau and software house)

Team leader for the development of the LEAP5 engineering analysis suite. This software pioneered the use of relational data bases for engineering analysis data and was widely used for framework and finite element analysis in civil engineering for more than twenty years.


Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB)

Performed finite element analyses for nuclear power station safety cases. Whilst at the CEGB, I became involved with the problem of long term archiving of engineering analysis data and in the role of standards. I became the CEGB representative on BSI AMT4/3, which jointly with the NAFEMS CAD-FE Working Group was responsible for engineering analysis data standards. I also became a BSI representative on ISO TC 184/SC4 "Industrial data".

1990 - present:

CAESAR Systems Limited

I founded CAESAR Systems to provide consultancy in engineering data management and standards. At CAESAR Systems, I have been involved with the following major projects:

  • Development of an information model for finite element analysis results on contract to Saab Military aircraft. This information model has now been incorporated within ISO 10303-104 "Finite element analysis".

  • Development of an initial information model and related set of reference data, for process plants as part of the EU co-funded ProcessBase project.

    The work continued with funding from the Netherlands process industry consortium and lead to the information models for process plant lifecycle data in ISO 15925-2 and ISO 10303-221, and to the process plant reference data in ISO/TS 15926-4.

    ISO 15926-2 has a formal basis which was derived from of the BORO methodology. This formal basis means that the implementation of ISO 15926 using Semantic Web technologies is possible.

  • Development of a generic engineering analysis framework derived from ISO 15926-2 and ISO 10303-104 as part of the EU co-funded GEM project.

    The work continued with funding from Boeing Commercial Aircraft and Rolls-Royce. The results have lead to the integration of computational fluid dynamics and structural analysis data within ISO 10303-209 edition 2.

    This work was carried out using both the UML and EXPRESS modelling languages.

  • Implementation of ISO 15926 using Semantic Web technologies for observations and measurements, as part of the EU co-funded ScadaOnWeb and S-TEN projects.

    An extension of ISO 15926, expressed in OWL, for the recording of observations and measurements has been adopted as a working draft by ISO TC184/SC4. Consensus on this draft is now being sought with MIMOSA (Machinery Information Management Open System Alliance) and ISO TC108.

  • Implementation of ISO 15926 using Semantic Web technologies for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) data, as part of the EU co-funded CASCADE and DEPUIS projects.

    As a result of this work there is a much wider understanding of the role of the Semantic Web within the LCA and product data communities. A road map for the use of the Semantic Web is being developed within the ISO TC184/SC4 "Industrial Data on the Web" group.

  • Development of ISO/TS 15926-3, which is an extension to ISO 15926 expressed in OWL for the representation of geometry, topology and meshed-based observations and analysis results.

    This work was carried out on contract to DNV. The work is significant in two respects:

    • it is an ontology for geometry and topology derived from STEP; and
    • it is an extension of STEP to encompass non-Cartesian GIS coordinate systems.

    ISO/TS 15926-3 will support the representation of spatial information about process plant equipment on and under the sea bed.

  • Development of the Shell "Downstream data model". This data model is intended as a integration model for the systems that support the Shell "downstream" business activities of refining, distribution and sales.

    The data model was developed as an extension to ISO 15926-2 and drew from the Boro methodology. Major extensions were for asset management, and for the analysis of Shell distribution systems.

  • Integration of the Shell equipment reference data with ISO 15926-4, which provides a standard taxonomy for equipment types and for their properties. This project supported the integration of the Shell SAP system and other Shell asset management system with the content of standard Shell equipment data sheets.

  • Development of ontologies and schemas for materials testing within the CEN workshops ELSSI "Standards-compliant schemas and ontologies for interoperability of engineering materials data" and SERES "Standards for Electronic Reporting in the Engineering Sector".

    The ontologies and schemas are based upon ISO 6892-1 "Metallic materials - Tensile testing - Method of test at room temperature", the ASTM E49 document on material identification, ISO 10303-235, and the industry standard XML schemas MatML and MatDB.

    The results of this work were presented as an ontology represented in OWL and as a conceptual data model represented in UML.

  • Development of the EPIM (Exploration and Production Information Management Association) "Reporting Hub". This is a system for integrating the drilling and production reports from activities within the Norwegian continental shelf, and for reporting to the Norwegian government.

    The stem uses SPIN and SPARQL to transform the data from XML based legacy systems to OWL triples held in a triple store. The ontology is an implementation of ISO 15926 in OWL, with extensions to the ISO 15926 reference data to support drilling and production activities.

Current involvement in international standards

See also

The One World Club